The first settler arrived around 1818. The Town of Coldspring was established in 1837 from a part of the Town of Napoli. In 1847 and 1848, part of the town was added to the Town of South Valley.
In 1965, the former "Town of Elko" was dissolved, and its territory was absorbed by Coldspring. Elko had been formed in 1890 from part of the Town of South Valley and is now the south part of Coldspring. Elko had first been settled by Quakers, acting as missionaries to the local natives in 1798.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 52.0 square miles, of which, 51.5 square miles of it is land and 0.5 square miles of it (1.04%) is water.
The south town line is the boundary of Pennsylvania, and the Allegheny River divides the town with its reservoir.
New York State Route 394 and Interstate 86 pass through the town.
This is a paved launch with parking for 35 cars with trailers that gives you access to the Allegheny River into the Allegheny Reservoir.
There are no facilities and swimming is not allowed.
This body of water, also known as Kinzua Lake, was created when the Kinzua dam was completed in 1965 for the purpose of drought control, hydroelectric power production and recreation.
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The cabin at Pfeiffer Nature Center is made entirely of American Chestnut, which is now extinct.